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Friday, June 5, 2015

5 Pillars of 5G

5 key building blocks for 5G, as illustrated besides are elaborated herein.  Each of these blocks is discussed with highlights their role and importance for achieving 5G

8:33 PM by Alex Wanda · 0

Thursday, May 28, 2015

Five Disruptive Technology Directions for 5G

New research directions will lead to fundamental changes in the design of future fifth generation (5G) cellular networks. This article describes five technologies that could lead to both architectural and component disruptive design changes: device-centric architectures, millimeter wave, massive MIMO, smarter devices, and native support for machine-to-machine communications. The key ideas for each technology are described, along with their potential impact on 5G and the research challenges that remain. Read on.;………..

11:58 AM by Alex Wanda · 0

Wednesday, March 25, 2015

Location-Based Services in LTE

3GPP Release 9 provides a framework for defining the UE location (so-called UE positioning) in order to support a variety of location-based services (LBSs). In Release 9, the positioning reference signals (PRSs) have been introduced to facilitate the determination of the position of the UE, referred to as a UE-assisted positioning technique. A UE-assisted positioning technique involves the following:
  • The UE makes some radio signal measurements and
  • The network determines the UE location (e.g., latitude and longitude) by processing the measurements reported by the UE. This is conducted by a separate system that processes the reported radio information to identify the UE location.

The PRS are transmitted on antenna port 6 and are sent in a configurable number of consecutive subframes of up to five subframes. The E-UTRAN configures the PRS bandwidth (e.g., a certain number of RBs) and the periodicity of the PRS (e.g., one PRS occurrence every 160 subframes). Within a subframe containing the PRS, they are transmitted on more subcarriers and more OFDM symbols when compared to the regular cell-specific reference signals being sent on an antenna. The utilization of more time–frequency resources within a subframe by the PRS can improve the quality of the UE measurements compared to the use of only the basic cell-specific reference signals.

6:43 PM by Alex Wanda · 0

Sunday, February 8, 2015

Data Flow Across LTE Protocol Layers

The LTE (long term evolution) air interface provides connectivity between the user equipment (UE) and the eNB (eNodeB). It is split into a control plane and a user plane. Among the two control plane signalings, the first is provided by the access stratum (AS) and carries signaling between the UE and the eNB. The second carries non-access stratum (NAS) signaling messages between the UE and the MME (mobility management entity), which is piggybacked into an RRC (radio resource control) message. The user plane delivers the IP (Internet protocol) packets to and from the EPC (evolved packet core), the S-GW (serving gateway), and the PDN-GW (packet data network gateway).

The structure of the lower layer protocols for the control and user planes in AS are the same. Both planes utilize the protocols of PDCP (packet data convergence protocol), RLC (radio link control), and MAC (medium access control), as well as the PHY (physical layer) for the transmission of the signaling and data packets.

10:05 PM by Alex Wanda · 0

Friday, December 12, 2014

Challenges and Solutions in Prototyping 5G Radio Access Network

Breakthroughs in wireless networks will drive commerce and enhance society in entirely new and unexpected ways. A key component of the wireless future will be the widespread deployment of 5G wireless networks.

The primary goals of 5G are to support a 1,000-fold gain in capacity, connections for at least 100 billion devices, and 10Gb/s delivered to individual users. Additionally, these new networks will be capable of providing mass low-latency connectivity between people, machines, and devices. Deployment of 5G networks is expected to commence in 2020. 5G radio access will be built using evolved existing wireless radio access technologies (RAT) such as LTE and WiFi combined with entirely new technologies.

1:38 PM by Alex Wanda · 0

Monday, December 8, 2014


With emerging demands for local area and popular content sharing services, multihop device-to-device communication is conceived as a vital component of next-generation cellular networks to improve spectral reuse, bring hop gains, and enhance system capacity. Ripening these benefits depends on fundamentally understanding its potential performance impacts and efficiently solving several main technical problems.

Aiming to establish a new paradigm for the analysis and design of multihop D2D communications,
in this article, we propose a dynamic graph optimization framework that enables the modeling of large-scale systems with multiple D2D pairs and node mobility patterns. By inherently modeling the main technological problems for multihop D2D communications, this framework benefits investigation of theoretical performance limits and studying the optimal system design. Furthermore, these achievable benefits are demonstrated by examples of simulations under a realistic multihop D2D communication underlaying cellular network.


6:37 PM by Alex Wanda · 0

Friday, December 5, 2014

How Mobile is Enabling Tech to Outgrow the Tech Industry

Android devices are still the driving force across the global smartphone market, according to the International Data Corporation. Total smartphone shipments are set to reach 1.3 billion units this year with Android accounting for over 80 percent compared to just under 14 percent for iOS. 

From a revenue perspective, Apple’s premium smartphones control 30 percent of global revenue while Android’s more layered approach will afford it just under 67 percent.

7:06 PM by Alex Wanda · 0

Tuesday, December 2, 2014

Bringing Network Function Virtualization to LTE

The mobile telecommunications industry is at the verge of a unique business crossroads. The growing gap between capacity and demand is an urgent call for new approaches and alternative network technologies to enable mobile operators to achieve more with less.

Today, mobile broadband data is growing at an annual rate of 40-50 percent per year in the U.S. and other regions globally. Mobile service providers address these rapidly expanding traffic volumes through deployment of additional network functions, which will be a significant capital expenditure (CAPEX) challenge. The nature of that mobile broadband data traffic is also evolving with new services including new video applications, connected cars and the Internet of Things (IoT). This rapid capacity growth and increasing traffic diversity in LTE networks stresses the assumptions of existing network architectures and operational paradigms. 

5:37 PM by Alex Wanda · 0

Tuesday, August 12, 2014

Creating a Digital 6th Sense with LTE Direct

LTE Direct is an innovative device-to-device proximal discovery technology that can be efficiently integrated with LTE Advanced services and networks. It is defined as part of the global 3GPP standard, as a feature in Release 12. LTE Direct will make users aware of what’s happening around them at all times, effortlessly and privately, changing how people socialize and interact with people and things.

An interesting presentation from Qualcomm. read on.............................

10:52 AM by Alex Wanda · 0